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Ruthven of Freeland, Lord (S, 1651)

 

Creation: let.pat. betw. 31 Mar and 24 May 1651

 

Family name: Ruthven

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Arms:

Paly of six Argent and Gules

Crest:

A Goat's Head couped Argent attired and maned Or

Supporters:

On either side a Goat Argent attired and maned Or

Motto:

 Deeds Shaw

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Thomas [Ruthven], 1st Lord Ruthven of Freeland

only son and heir of William Ruthven of Freeland (by his wife Isabella Fotheringham), 1st son and heir of Hon Alexander Ruthven of Freeland (by his wife Elizabeth Moncrieff, dau. of Sir William Moncrieff of that Ilk), 5th son of William [Ruthven], 2nd Lord Ruthven

born

 

mar.

Hon Isabel Balfour, 3rd dau. of Hon Margaret Balfour, suo jure Lady Balfour of Burleigh, by her husband Robert Arnot later Balfour of Fernie

children

1. Hon David Ruthven, later 2nd Lord Ruthven of Freeland

1. Hon Anne Ruthven (d. bef. 21 Mar 1688/9), mar. (1) Aug 1661 Sir William Cunninghame of Cunninghamehead, 2nd Bt., and (2) 22 Apr 1673 William Cunningham, Yr of Craigends, and had issue by her first husband:

1a. Sir William Cunninghame of Cunninghamehead later Ruthven of Freeland, 3rd Bt., inherited the Ruthven estates from his aunt Jean, Lady Ruthven of Freeland (dsp. Oct 1722), mar. Anne Stewart, dau. of Sir Archibald Stewart of Castlemilk, 1st Bt., by his wife Mary Carmichael, dau. of Hon William Carmichael, son and heir ap. of James [Carmichael], 1st Lord Carmichael

2. Hon Elizabeth Ruthven (d. bef. 1674), mar. Sir Francis Ruthven of Redcastle, 1st Bt., and had issue:

1b. Isabel Ruthven, suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

2b. Elizabeth Ruthven, mar. James Pitcairn, and had issue

3b. Anna Ruthven (dsp.)

3. Hon Jean Ruthven, later suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

died

6 May 1671

created

between 31 Mar and 24 May 1651 Lord Ruthven of Freeland

suc. by

son

note

knighted 1633;  Member of Parliament for Perthshire 1639-41, 1645-46 and 1649-50;  Commissioner for the Treaty of Ripon 1641;  Commissioner for the apprehension of Jesuits, seminary and mass priests 1642;  attended meetings of the Scottish Privy Council as Conservator of Peace 1643 and 1644;  lent money for the relief of the Scottish army in Ireland 1643;  Col of one of the regiments sent against the Royalists 1644;  a member of several of the Committees of Estates 1646-47;  a Commissioner of the Scottish Exchequer 1649

 

David [Ruthven], 2nd Lord Ruthven of Freeland, PC

born

died

Apr 1701

suc. by

sister

note

executed an entail of his lands in favour of his youngest sister, Jean, and others 1624 ; had a licence to go abroad 1678; Commissioner of Excise and of the Militia, Justice of the Peace for Perthshire 1680; Privy Councillor [S] 1689; a Lord of the Scottish Treasury 1689-91

 

Editor's Note:

 

The descent of the Lordship of Ruthven of Freeland after the death of the 2nd Lord Ruthven of Freeland raises many questions. The patent creating the peerage in 1651 was never enrolled and the original patent has subsequently been lost or destroyed. In the absence of any other proof, the assumption nowadays is that a limitation is to the heirs male of the body of the grantee. King Charles II created eight Scottish peerages while in exile, all within a short period of six months. Of the eight, it is known in the case of six of them that the limitation was to the heirs male of the body of the grantee. In the case of the other two, Duffus and Ruthven of Freeland, there is no reason to think that the limitations would be anything other then to the heirs male of the body of the grantee. If this assumption is correct, then the Lordship of Ruthven of Freeland became extinct on the death of the 2nd Lord.

 

Even if the limitation was to heirs of the body of the grantee, on the death of the 2nd Lord the peerage should have passed to his nephew and heir of line, Sir William Cunningham of Cunninghamehead, rather than to his youngest sister, Hon Jean Ruthven, the heir of entail. It might be that at the time it was thought that the peerage should follow the land and estates, but if this was the case then why did Sir William not claim the peerage when he inherited the Ruthven estates from his aunt in mid 1722? After Sir William's death in later 1722 the Ruthven estates passed to his cousin and heiress of line, Isabel Ruthven, who thereupon assumed the title of Lady Ruthven of Freeland. She was summoned as such to the Coronation of King George II in 1727, but this cannot of itself be taken as official recognition. Under Scottish Peerage Law this could only be done by the Lord Lyon King of Arms.

 

Her son James, 5th Lord Ruthven of Freeland, voted at several elections of Representative Peers of Scotland between 1733 and 1774 without challenge. Again, of itself this is not official recognition of his claim to the peerage. In The Complete Peerage Vol XI Appendix H page 143, GEC says: "Since the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, Scottish peers, as such, have not sat in the House of Lords, but have elected a fixed number of themselves to represent the Scottish peerage therein. This has made it possible for any person who may claim an extinct or dormant title to which he or she has no right, or cannot prove a right, to assume such title without impunity. Such soi-disant peers can even vote, and have often voted, at the election of Scottish peers. If there is no rival claimant, the vote might not be challenged; if there were two rival claimants, they might, and sometimes did, both vote; which shows the absurdity of putting forward the fact of a soi-disant peer having so voted as an argument in favour of the validity of his claim."

 

The 5th Lord and his second wife were summoned to attend the Coronation of King George III in 1761, but as in the case of his mother, such a summons cannot be taken as any form of official recognition of his title. The 6th Lord Ruthven of Freeland voted at the election of Scottish Peers in 1784, for which see GEC's comment above.

 

In 1919 the 9th Lord Ruthven of Freeland was created Baron Ruthven of Gowrie, of Gowrie in the County of Perth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The then Garter Principal King of Arms, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, provided the Crown Office with the description of the grantee for inclusion in the letters patent creating the new peerage. This was an ingenious way of obtaining recognition by the Crown of the existence of the Scottish Lordship. However, GEC was far from pleased with this, for he says (The Complete Peerage Vol XIII page 323): "In the patent (Patent Roll 10 Geo. V, pt. 3) the grantee is designated "Walter James Baron Ruthven of Freeland" in Scotland. It is most unfortunate that the Crown should have been so ill advised as to recognise in error this Scottish barony, the right of succession to it never having been established, and its very existence having been expressly repudiated by the Lord Clerk Register before a Select Committee in 1882. The English Chancery is not to blame, for it has no concern with Scottish dignities. The wrong description of the grantee was supplied by Garter (the late Sir Henry Farnham Burke), and presumably Lyon King was not consulted."

 

The view of the Editor is that the survival of the Lordship of Ruthven of Freeland after the death of the 2nd Lord is very dubious. However, the recognition by the Crown was done, rightly or wrongly, and the existence of the Lordship of Ruthven of Freeland is now a matter of fact. If the 1st Baron Ruthven of Gowrie was also Lord Ruthven of Freeland, then so were his predecessors and so are his successors. This was certainly not the first time that a peerage was created or recognised in error by the Crown or the House of Lords nor, probably, will it be the last.

 

Hon Jean Ruthven, suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

born

mar.

died

Apr 1722

suc. by

niece, but see note

note

after Lady Ruthven of Freeland's death there was a short interval during which the title was not assumed

 

Isabel Ruthven, suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

born

mar.

Col James Johnstone of Graitney later Ruthven of Graitney, son of William Johnstone of Graitney

children

1. Hon James Johnstone later Ruthven, later 5th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

1. Hon Anne Johnstone later Ruthven (dsp.), mar. (1) 25 Apr 1724 Hon Henry Rollo (b. 12 Jun 1705; dsp. 2 Jul 1745), 2nd son of Robert [Rollo], 4th Lord Rollo, by his wife Mary Rollo, 1st dau. of Sir Harry Rollo of Woodside, and (2) Frederick Bruce of Bunzeon

died

23 Jun 1732

suc. by

son

note

inherited the Ruthven estates from her cousin, Sir William Cunninghame of Cunninghamehead later Ruthven of Freeland, 3rd Bt., Oct 1722; summoned as the holder of a Lordship of Parliament to the Coronation of King George II 1727

 

James [Johnstone later Ruthven], 5th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

born

mar. (1)

Janet Nisbet, dau. of William Nisbet of Dirleton

children by first wife

1. Hon James Ruthven, later 6th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

2. Hon William Ruthven (b. 16 Feb 1735; d. unm.)

mar. (2)

Jul 1736 Lady Anne Stewart (d. 28 Nov 1786), 3rd dau. of James [Stewart], 2nd Earl of Bute, by his wife Lady Anne Campbell, only dau. of Archibald [Campbell], 1st Duke of Argyll

children by second wife

3. Hon Stewart James Ruthven (b. 29 Nov 1739; d. unm.)

4. Capt Hon John Ruthven RN, in command of HMS Terpsichore when it captured the French ship the Marquis de Marigny (b. 29 Mar 1743; dvp. 14 Dec 1771)

1. Hon Anne Ruthven (b. 3 Oct 1737; d. 28 Oct 1801), mar. 1764 John [Elphinstone], 11th Lord Elphinstone, and had issue

2. Hon Isabel Ruthven (b. 6 Nov 1738; dvp. 8 Sep 1775), mar. Capt John MacDougall, Yr of Dunollie (b. 1733; dspvp. 27 Apr 1775), 1st son and heir ap. of Alexander Macdougall, 23rd of Dunollie, by his wife Mary Campbell, dau. of Patrick Campbell of Barcaldine

3. Hon Wortley Montagu Ruthven (b. 9 Sep 1741; dvp. 4 Mar 1768)

4. Hon Elizabeth Maria Ruthven, mar. 18 Jul 1763 (div. 1774) as his first wife General Sir Robert Laurie of Maxwellton, 5th Bt. MP, Knight Marshal of Scotland 1785-1804,and had issue

5. Hon Jean Ruthven (b. 11 Oct 1745; dvp. young)

6. Hon Grace Ruthven (b. 5 Nov 1746; dvp. young)

7. Hon Janet Ruthven (b. 7 Dec 1747; dsps. Jun 1785), mar. 1 Aug 1765 as his first wife Capt Wade Toby Caulfield, of Raheenduff, Queen's Co., and Catcombe, co. Wiltshire (b. 1732; d. Aug 1800), 1st son and heir of Col William Caulfield, Lieut-Governor of Fort St George, Inverness, by his wife Catherine Moore, dau. and hrss. of Rev Francis Moore, of Raheenduff, Queen's Co., and had issue

8. Hon Crawford Ruthven (b. 15 Jul 1749; dvp. young)

died

3 Jul 1783

suc. by

son by first wife

note

he voted at several elections of Representative Peers of Scotland from 1733 to 1774 without challenge; he and his wife were summoned to attend the Coronation of King George III in 1761

 

James [Ruthven], 6th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

born

16 Dec 1733

mar.

8 or 12 Nov 1776 his cousin Lady Mary Elizabeth Leslie (b. 4 Mar 1767; d. 7 Oct 1820), 2nd dau. of David [Leslie], 6th Earl of Leven, by his wife Wilhelmina Nisbet, dau. of William Nisbet of Dirleton

children

1. Hon James Ruthven, later 7th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

2. Hon David Ruthven (b. 11 Dec 1781; dvp. young)

3. Hon David Ruthven, on the Bengal Civil Establishment from 1805 (b. 22 Aug 1787; d. 7 Sep 1808)

1. Hon Willielma Ruthven (b. 18 Nov 1778; d. 18 Dec 1839)

2. Hon Janet Anne Ruthven (b. 15 or 25 April 1780; d. 31 Oct 1804)

3. Hon Jane Ruthven (d. 1 Mar 1804)

4. hon Isabella Ruthven (dvp. 13 Nov 1787)

5. Hon Mary Elizabeth Thornton Ruthven, later suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

6. Hon Charlotte Rebecca Ruthven (d. 19 mar 1804)

died

27 Sec 1789

suc. by

son

note

entered the Army 1755; Capt, 12th Regiment of Foot 1762; he voted at the election of Representative Peers of Scotland 1784

 

James [Ruthven], 7th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

born

17 Oct 1777

mar.

20 Dec 1813 Mary Campbell, inherited the Pencaitland estates from her maternal uncle John Hamilton Nisbet of Pentcaitland (b. 1789; dsp. 5 Apr 1885), 2nd dau. of Walter Campbell, 3rd of Shawfield and Islay and 9th of Skipness, by his second wife Mary Nisbet (former wife of Maj William Hay, Yr. of Newhall, elder brother of George [Hay], 7th Marquess of Tweeddale), sister and hrss. of John Hamilton Nisbet of Pencaitland, Dechmont and Winton, and only dau. of William Nisbet of Dirleton by his wife Mary Hamilton, heiress of Pencaitland, Saltcoats, Dechmont, Barncleuch, Biel and Presmennan, only dau. and sole hrss. of Alexander Hamilton of Pencaitland, by his wife Mary Tulloch, 1st dau. of Sir Francis Kinloch of Glimerton, 3rd Bt.

died

s.p. 27 Jul 1853

suc. by

sister

note

Major, 90th Regiment of Foot 1802; left the Army 1807

 

Hon Mary Elizabeth Thornton Ruthven later Hore-Ruthven, suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

born

1784

mar.

13 Oct 1806 Walter Hore later Hore-Ruthven, of Harperstown, co. Wexford, High Sheriff of Wexford 1828 (b. 6 Jun 1784; d. 16 Apr 1878), 1st son and heir of William Hore, of Harperstown, co. Wexford, High Sheriff of Wexford 1788 (by his wife Eleanor Catherine Bradstreet, dau. and hrss. of Sir Simon Bradstreet, 2nd Bt., by his wife Anne Cavendish, 4th dau. by his first wife of Rt Hon Sir Henry Cavendish, 1st Bt., of Doveridge. co. Derby), 1st son and heir of Col Walter Hore MP, of Harperstown co. Wexford, Attorney-General of Ireland, High Sheriff of Wexford 1793 (by his wife Lady Anne Stopford, dau. of James [Stopford], 1st Earl of Courtown), only son and heir of William Hore MP, of Harperstown, co. Wexford, Attorney-General of Ireland, by his wife Hon Dorothy Ponsonby, dau. of William [Ponsonby], 1st Viscount Duncannon

children

1. William Hore, an officer in the 75th Regiment of Foot (dvm. 12 May 1847), mar. 16 May 1836 Dells Honoria Lowen (b. c. 1819; d. 9 Nov 1883), dau. of Lt Col Pierce Lowen KH, and had issue:

1a. Walter James Hore later Hore-Ruthven, later 9th Lord Ruthven of Freeland later 1st Baron Ruthven of Gowrie

2a. Capt Charles Edward Stewart Hore later Hore-Ruthven OBE (b. 21 Apr 1840; d. 1920), mar. 20 Sep 1875 Marianne Wood (d. 18 Nov 1841), 2nd dau. of Col Edward Robert Wood, of Stouthall, co. Glamorgan, and had issue

1a. Mary Lowen Hore (b. 1842; d. 4 Feb 1869), mar. 7 Jun 1860 Rev Walter H Sutton, and had issue

2a. Wilhelmina Dells Owena Hore (b. 1845; d. 29 Oct 1933), mar. 19 Jun 1879 Rev Charles Bodval Griffith, Rector of Bishopstone, co. Hereford, and had issue

3a. Maria Frederica Hore (b. 1847; d. 14 Aug 1897)

2. Rev James Ruthven Hore (dvm. Jan 1839)

3. Capt Hon Alexander Leslie Melville Hore (d. 14 May 1877)

4. James Stopford Hore (dvm. 1827)

5. Lieut Hon Cavendish Bradstreet Hore RN (dvm. of wounds received at the Battle of Sebastopol 22 Oct 1854)

6. Maj Hon Walter Hore HEICS (dvm. 5 Mar 1856)

1. Hon Mary Elizabeth Hore (b. 4 Jan 1808; d. 28 Mar 1895)

2. Hon Eleanor Catherine Hore (b. 26 Jun 1809; d. 27 Mar 1866)

3. Hon Anna Hore (b. 21 Sep 1818; d. 1893)

4. Hon Wilhelmina Hore (b. 1819; d. 14 Oct 1889)

5. Hon Jane Stewart Hore (b. 1824; dsp. 6 Oct 1917), mar. 1 May 1858 George O'Grady, of Plattenstown, co. Wicklow (dsp. 11 Nov 1872), nephew of Standish [O'Grady], 1st Viscount Guillamore

6. Hon Georgina Jocelyn Hore (b. 1827; d. 29 May 1901)

died

13 Feb 1864

suc. by

grandson

note

she and her husband assumed the additional name of Ruthven on her accession to the title

 

Walter James [Hore later Hore-Ruthven], 9th Lord Ruthven of Freeland and 1st Baron Ruthven of Gowrie

born

14 Jun 1838

mar.

21 Aug 1869 Lady Caroline Annesley Gore (b. 13 Oct 1848; d. 16 Dec 1914), 1st dau. of Philip Yorke [Gore], 4th Earl of Arran, by his wife Elizabeth Marianne Napier, 2nd dau. of Gen Sir William Francis Patrick Napier KCB (by his wife Caroline Amelia Fox, 2nd dau. of Gen Hon Henry Edward Fox, 3rd son of Lady Georgiana Caroline Lennox, suo jure Baroness Holland), 3rd son of Col Hon George Napier (by his second wife Lady Sarah Lennox, 4th dau. of Charles [Lennox], 2nd Duke of Richmond), 1st son by his second wife of Francis [Scott later Napier], 6th Lord Napier of Merchistoun

children

1. Hon Walter Patrick Hore-Ruthven, later 10th Lord Ruthven of Freeland and 2nd Baron Ruthven of Gowrie

2. Hon Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-Ruthven, later 1st Earl of Gowrie

3. Col Hon Christian Malise Hore-Ruthven CMG DSO, served in South Africa 1899-1902, World War I 1914-18, Commander 15th (Durham light Infantry) Brigade 1929, ADC to King George V 1932-33 (b. 24 Apr 1880; d. 3 May 1969), mar. 26 May 1925 Hon Angela Margaret Manners-Sutton (b. 15 Jun 1889; d. 1 Feb 1970), 3rd dau. of John Thomas [Manners-Sutton], 3rd Baron Manners, by his first wife Constance Edwina Adelaide Hamlyn-Fane, 4th dau. of Lt Col Henry Edward Fane later Hamlyn-Fane MP, of Clovelly Court, co. Devon, and Avon Tyrrell, co Hampshire (by his wife Susan Hester Hamlyn-Williams, 1st dau. and cohrss. of Sir James Hamlyn-Williams, 3rd Bt. MP, of Clovelly Court, co. Devon), 1st son of Rev Edward Fane, Rector of Fulbeck, co. Lincoln (by his wife Maria Hodges, dau. of Walter Parry Hodges, of Dorchester), 1st son of Hon Henry Fane MP (by his wife Anne Batson, dau. of Edward Buckley Batson, of Avon Tyrrell, co. Southampton), 2nd son of Thomas [Fane], 8th Earl of Westmorland, and had issue

4. Hon Philip James Leslie Hore-Ruthven, served in South Africa 1901-02 (b. 7 Jun 1882; dsp. 18 May 1908), mar. 8 Mar 1906 Lydia Gladys Adams (mar. (2) 15 Apr 1912 Maj Gen Hugh Wharton Myddleton Watson CB CMG DSO (d. 23 Mar 1938), son of Maj Gen J C Watson ; d. c. 1950), yst. dau. of Henry Adams, of Cannon Hill, Bray, co. Berkshire

1. Hon Beatrix Mary Leslie Hore-Ruthven (b. 4 Jun 1871; d. 24 Mar 1930), mar. (1) 5 Dec 1888 (div. 1894) as his first wife Capt Charles Lindsay Orr Ewing MP (b. 8 Sep 1860; d. 24 Dec 1903), 5th son of Sir Archibald Orr Ewing of Ballikinrain, 1st Bt. MP, by his wife Elizabeth Lindsay Reid, only dau. of James Reid, (2) 28 Dec 1894 (div. 1914) Maj Charles Edward Malcolm, of Maxstone Castle, Coleshill, co. Warwick (b. 2 Dec 1865; d. 16 Apr 1935), 2nd son of James Malcolm by his second wife Adeline Attye, 1st dau. of James Attye, of Pinchbeck, co. Lincoln, and (3) 30 Dec 1914 Sir Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith CBE, son of Thomas Sopwith MICE, and had issue by her first and second husbands

died

28 Feb 1921 (bur. in Edinburgh)

created

28 Oct 1919 Baron Ruthven of Gowrie, of Gowrie in the County of Perth

suc. by

son

note

entered the Rifle Brigade 1854; Capt, 1859 and served in the Crimea, India and Abyssinia; Maj, 9th Battalion The Rifle Brigade (London Scottish) 1878-86; made bankrupt in the sum of £3,387 Dec 1881; served in World War I 1914-18 as an extra King's Messenger and Assistant Provost Marshal

 

Walter Patrick [Hore-Ruthven], 10th Lord Ruthven of Freeland and 2nd Baron Ruthven of Gowrie, CB CMG DSO

born

6 Jun 1870

mar. (1)

23 Apr 1895 Jean Leslie Lampson, sister of Miles Wedderburn [Lampson], 1st Baron Killearn, and 1st dau. of Norman George Lampson JP DL, of The Farm House, Pont Street, Chelsea, London (by his wife Helen Agnes Blackburn, 4th dau. of Peter Blackburn MP, of Killearn, co. Stirling), 3rd son of Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson, 1st Bt.

children by first wife

1. Hon Bridget Helen Hore-Ruthven, later suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland

2. Hon Jean Elisabeth St Loe Hore-Ruthven (dsp. 7 Mar 1960), mar. 21 Jun 1933 Don Francisco Larios (d. 26 Nov 1958), only son of Don Ernesto Larios, of Monte de la Torre, Algeciras, Spain

3. Hon Alison Mary Hore-Ruthven (d. 2 Oct 1974), mar. 5 Mar 1929 Cdr Sir John Leighton Barran, 3rd Bt. RN, and had issue

mar. (2)

died

s.p.m. 6 Apr 1956

suc. by

his daughter in the Lordship of Ruthven of Freeland and his great-nephew, 2nd Earl of Gowrie, in the Barony of Ruthven of Gowrie

note

joined the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 1887; transferred to Scots Guards 1891; served in the South African War 1899-1902; DSO 1900; served in World War I 1914-18; Brig-Maj, 4th Guards Brigade 1914; Lt Col commanding 1st Battalion Scots Guards 1914-15; CMG 1915; General Staff Officer 1st Grade, 47th and Guards Divisions 1915-16; Brig-Gen, General Staff 8th Army Corps, 1916-17; Commanding Officer, 120th Infantry Brigade 1918; Brevet Col; Commanding Officer, 1st Guards Brigade 1919 and Southern Command India, 1920; CB 1919; Col Commandant, commanding a Brigade in India 1921; Maj-General; General Officer Commanding, London District 1924-28; Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Guernsey 1929-34; retired from the Army 1934

 

Hon Bridget Helen Hore-Ruthven CBE, suo jure Lady Ruthven of Freeland, CBE

born

27 Jul 1896

mar. (1)

17 Jan 1918 (div. 1947) as his first wife George Josslyn L'Estrange [Howard], 11th Earl of Carlisle

children by first husband

1. Hon Charles James Ruthven Howard, later 12th Earl of Carlisle and 12th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

1. Lady Carolyn Bridget Dacre Howard (b. 18 Aug 1919)

mar. (2)

13 Aug 1947 as his second wife Walter Turner [Monckton], 1st Viscount Monckton of Brenchley

died

17 Apr 1982

suc. by

son by first husband

note

 

Charles James Ruthven [Howard], 12th Earl of Carlisle and 12th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

note

suc. his father 17 Feb 1963 as 12th Earl of Carlisle and his mother 17 Apr 1982 as 12th Lord Ruthven of Freeland

 

The Lordship of Ruthven of Freeland has been held by the Earls of Carlisle since 17 Apr 1982.

 

 First written 4 May 2010

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