Cracroft's Peerage
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The Later House of Plantagenet (1327 - 1485)

 

The somewhat tenuous claim of King Edward III to the Throne of France precipitated the conflict between England and France now known as the 100 Years' War, which was neither one continuous conflict nor even a single dispute lasting 100 years . It was part of a disjointed series of wars between England and France that went back to the Norman conquest. It culminated in a disaster for the English when the expulsion of the English from Gascony in 1453 stripped England of its last mainland possession except Calais.

 

If this were not enough there were problems at home. The period between the first battle of St Albans (1455) and the battle of Stoke (1487) is known as the War of the Roses, the dynastic quarrel between the two branches of the Plantagenets: the House of Lancaster, who bore as a badge the Red Rose and who were descended from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the 4th son of King Edward III, and the House of York, who bore as a badge the White Rose and who were descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, the 6th son of King Edward III . More importantly the House of York was descended in the female line from Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, the 3rd son of King Edward III, thereby giving them a more senior claim to the Crown than that enjoyed by the House of Lancaster. The rivalry between the cousins King Henry VI, of the House of Lancaster, on one hand, and Richard, Duke of York (and after 1460 his son Edward, Duke of York, later King Edward IV) on the other, broke out into fighting from time to time, and the whole question of the succession was not settled until the final victory of King Henry VII at the Battle of Stoke in 1487. As the sole remaining Lancastrian heir his marriage with the Yorkist heiress, Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of King Edward IV, secured legitimacy in blood as well as by force of arms for the House of Tudor.

 

 

King Edward III's third Great Seal, used from February 1340, and

his subsequent Great Seals including the famous Brétigny Seal,

describe him as King of France and England, and show for the

first time the arms of France quartered with those of England, thus

giving expression in armorial terms to his claim to be King of France.

The quarterly coat was used as the Royal Arms down to about 1407.

 

Edward III (1327-1377)

born

13 Nov 1312

mar.

24 Jan 1328 Philippa of Hainault (b. c.1313; d. 15 Aug 1369), dau. of William V, Count of Hainault and Holland, by his wife Joan of Valois, dau. of Charles of France, Count of Valois

children

1. Edward "of Woodstock" or "the Black Prince", cr. 18 May 1333 Earl of Chester, 3 Mar 1337 Duke of Cornwall, 12 May 1343 Prince of Wales, 19 Jul 1362 Prince of Aquitaine and 23 Sep 1366 Lord of Biscay and Castro Urdiales, Founder Knight of the Garter 1348 (b. 15 Jun 1330; dvp. 8 Jun 1376), mar. 10 Oct 1361 his first cousin once removed Lady Joan Plantagenet, suo jure Countess of Kent (b. 29 Sep 1328; widow of Thomas [Holland], 1st or 5th Earl of Kent; d. 7 Aug 1385), sister and hrss. of John [Plantagenet], 3rd Earl of Kent, and only surv. dau. of Edmund "of Woodstock", 1st Earl of Kent, and had issue:

1a. Edward (b. 27 Jan 1365; dvp. Jan 1372)

2a. Richard "of Bordeaux", later King Richard II

2. William "of Hatfield" (b. c.1335; dvp. bef. 3 Mar 1337)

3. Lionel "of Antwerp", jure uxoris Earl of Ulster, cr. 13 Nov 1362 Duke of Clarence, Knight of the Garter 1361 (b. 29 Nov 1338; d. 17 Oct 1368), mar. (1) 15 Aug 1342 his third cousin Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, suo jure Countess of Ulster (b. 6 Jul 1332; d. 10 Dec 1363), only child of William [de Burgh], 3rd Earl of Ulster, by his wife Lady Matilda Plantagenet, 2nd dau. by his first wife of Henry [Plantagenet], 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and mar. (2) 28 May 1368 Yolande Visconti of Milan (b. c. 1353; mar. (2) 2 Aug 1377 Ottone Paleologo, Marquis of Montferrat, and (3) 18 Apr 1381 Ludovico Visconti, Lord of Lodi; d. Nov 1386), dau. of Galleazzo Visconti II, Duke of Milan, by his wife Bianca Maria of Savoy, dau. of Aimone, Count of Savoy, and had issue by his first wife:

1a. Lady Philippa Plantagenet, suo jure Countess of Ulster (b. 16 Aug 1355; d. 21 Nov 1378) mar. May 1368 Edmund [de Mortimer], 3rd Earl of March, and had issue

4. John "of Gaunt", cr. 20 Sep 1342 Earl of Richmond, 14 Aug 1361 Lord of Beaufort and Nogent, 13 Nov 1362 Duke of Lancaster, 8 Oct 1370 Lord of Bergerac and Roche-sur-Yon and 2 Mar 1390 Duke of Aquitaine, Knight of the Garter 1361 (b. Mar 1340; d. 4 Feb 1399), mar. (1) 19 May 1359 Lady Blanche Plantagenet, suo jure Countess of Lancaster (b. 25 Mar 1345; d. 12 Sep 1369), 2nd dau. and eventual sole hrss. of Henry "of Grosmont", 1st Duke of Lancaster, and had issue:

1a. John (b. c.1362; d. young)

2a. Edward (b. c.1365; dvp. 1365)

3a. John (b. bef. 4 May 1366; d. young)

4a. Henry "of Bolingbroke", later King Henry IV

1a. Lady Philippa Plantagenet (b. 31 Mar 1360; d. 19 Jul 1415), mar. 14 Feb 1387 John I, King of Portugal, and had issue

2a. Lady Elizabeth Plantagenet (b. 21 Feb 1363; d. 24 Nov 1425), mar. (1) 24 Jun 1380 (dissolved after 24 Sep 1383) as his first wife John [de Hastings], 14th or 3rd Earl of Pembroke, (2) 24 Jun 1386 John [Holand], 1st Duke of Exeter, and (3) bef. 12 Dec 1400 John [Cornwall], 1st Baron Fanhope, and had issue by her second and third husbands

3a. Lady Isabella Plantagenet (b. c.1368; d. young)

The Duke of Lancaster mar. (2) 21 Sep 1371 Constance of Castile, de jure Queen of Castile (b. 1354; d. 24 Mar 1394), 1st dau. and cohrss. of Peter I, King of Castile, by his wife Maria Garcias de Padilla, dau. of John Garcias de Padilla, and had issue:

5a. John (b. 1374; dvp. 1375)

4a. Lady Katherine Plantagenet (b. bef. 31 Mar 1373; d. 2 Jun 1418), mar. Sep 1388 Henry III, King of Castile, and had issue

The Duke of Lancaster mar. (3) 13 Jan 1396 his mistress Katherine de Swynford (b. c.1350; widow of Sir Hugh de Swynford, of Coleby and Kettlethorpe, co. Lincoln; d. 10 May 1403), 2nd dau. and cohrss. of Sir Payn de Roët, Guienne King of Arms; the children of this marriage were born before 1396 and were legitimated 9 Feb 1397:

6a. John [Beaufort], cr. 10 Feb 1397 Earl of Somerset, 9 Sep 1397 Marquess of Somerset and 29 Sep 1397 Marquess of Dorset (depr. 3 Nov 1399), Knight of the Garter c.1397 (b. c.1372; d. 16 Mar 1410), mar. bef. 28 Sep 1397 Lady Margaret de Holand (b. c.1381; mar. (2) aft. 10 Nov 1411 Thomas [Plantagenet], 1st Duke of Clarence; d. 30 Dec 1439), 2nd dau. of Thomas [de Holand], 2nd or 5th Earl of Kent, by his wife Lady Alice FitzAlan, 2nd dau. by his second wife of Richard [Fitzalan], 10th or 3rd Earl of Arundel, and had issue:

1b. Henry [Beaufort], 2nd Earl of Somerset (b. 26 Nov 1401; d. 25 Nov 1418)

2b. John [Beaufort], 3rd Earl of Somerset, cr. 28 Aug 1443 Earl of Kendal and Duke of Somerset, Knight of the Garter 1440 (b. c. Apr 1404; d. 27 May 1444), mar. c.1440 Margaret St John, de jure suo jure Baroness Beauchamp of Bletsoe (widow of Sir Oliver St John, of Bletsoe, co. Bedford; mar. (3) as his second wife Lionel [de Welles], 6th Baron Welles; d. 8 Aug 1482), only dau. of John [Beauchamp], 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Bletsoe, by his wife Edith Stourton, dau. of Sir John Stourton, and had issue:

1c. Lady Margaret Beaufort (b. 31 May 1443; d. 29 Jun 1509), mar. (1) bef. 18 Aug 1450 (annulled bef. 24 Mar 1453) as his first wife John [de la Pole], 2nd Duke of Suffolk, (2) Oct 1455 Edmund [Tudor], 1st Earl of Richmond, (3) c. 1460 Lord Henry Stafford (d. 4 Oct 1471), 2nd son of Humphrey [Stafford], 1st Duke of Buckingham, and (4) bef. Oct 1473 Thomas [Stanley], 1st Earl of Derby, and had issue by her second husband:

1d. Henry [Tudor], 2nd Earl of Richmond, later King Henry VII

3b. Thomas [Beaufort], styled Earl of Perche (b. 1405; d. 1432)

4b. Edmund [Beaufort], 4th Earl of Somerset, cr. 18 Aug 1442 Earl of Dorset, 24 Jun 1443 Marquess of Dorset and 31 Mar 1448 Duke of Somerset (b. c.1406; d. 22 May 1455), mar. c.1435 Lady Eleanor de Ros (b. c.1408; widow of Thomas [de Ros], 8th Baron Ros; mar. (3) Walter Rodesley; d. 12 Mar 1467), 2nd dau. of Richard [de Beauchamp], 13th Earl of Warwick, by his first wife Elizabeth de Berkeley, de jure suo jure Baroness Berkeley, Baroness Lisle of Kingston Lisle and Baroness Teyes, only child of Thomas [de Berkeley], 5th Baron Berkeley, and had issue:

1c. Henry [Beaufort], 2nd Duke of Somerset (b. 26 Jan 1436; dspl. 15 May 1464) - through his illegitimate son Charles [Somerset], 1st Earl of Worcester, he was ancestor of the Earls and Marquesses of Worcester and of the Dukes of Beaufort

2c. Edmund [Beaufort], 3rd Duke of Somerset (b. c.1439; d. 6 May 1471)

3c. Lord John Beaufort (d. 4 May 1471)

4c. Lord Thomas Beaufort (d. bef. 1463)

1c. Lady Margaret Beaufort, mar. (1) 1455 Lord Humphrey Stafford, styled Earl of Stafford (dvp. 22 May 1457/8), 1st son and heir ap. of Humphrey [Stafford], 1st Duke of Buckingham, and (2) Sir Richard Dayrell, of Lillingstone Dayrell, co. Buckingham, and had issue by both husbands

2c. Lady Eleanor Beaufort (d. 16 Aug 1501), mar. (1) c. Apr 1458 James [Butler], 5th Earl of Ormonde and 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and (2) c.1470 Sir Robert Spencer, of Spencer Combe, co. Devon, and had issue by her second husband

3c. Lady Elizabeth Beaufort (d. bef. 1492), mar. (1) Sir Henry Lewes, of Horndon, co. Essex, and (2) Sir George Neville, and had issue by her first husband

4c. Lady Mary Beaufort, mar. ..... Burgh, and had issue

5c. Lady Anne Beaufort, mar. Sir William Paston, and had issue

6c. Lady Joan Beaufort (d. 11 Aug 1518), mar. (1) c. Jun 1478 as his second wife Robert [St Lawrence], 2nd Baron Howth, and (2) 1498 Richard Fry, and had issue by her second husband

1b. Lady Joan Beaufort (d. 15 Jul 1445), mar. (1) 2 Feb 1424 James I, King of Scotland, and (2) bef. 21 Sep 1439 Sir James Stewart ("the Black Knight") of Lorne (d. c.1448), and had issue by both husbands

2b. Lady Margaret Beaufort, mar. Thomas [Courtenay], 5th Earl of Devon, and had issue

7a. Henry Cardinal Beaufort, Dean of Wells 1397, Bishop of Lincoln 1398-1404, Bishop of Winchester 1404-47, Cardinal-Priest of St Eusebius 1426 (b. c.1375; d. 11 Apr 1447)

8a. Thomas Beaufort, cr. 5 Jul 1411 Earl of Dorset and 18 Nov 1416 Duke of Exeter, Knight of the Garter c.1400 (b. c. Jan 1377; d. 27 Dec 1426), mar. bef. 15 Feb 1403/4 Margaret Neville (b. c. Jan 1377; d. c. 9 Apr 1424), dau. of Sir Thomas Neville, of Hornby, co. York, by his wife Joan Furnivall, and had issue:

1b. Henry Beaufort (d. young)

5a. Lady Joan Beaufort (b. c.1379; d. 13 Nov 1440), mar. (1) bef. 30 Sep 1394 Robert [Ferrers], 2nd Baron Ferrers of Wemme, and (2) bef. 29 Nov 1396 as his second wife Ralph [Neville], 1st Earl of Westmorland, and had issue by both husbands

5. Edmund "of Langley", cr. 13 Nov 1362 Earl of Cambridge, and 6 Aug 1385 Duke of York, Knight of the Garter 1361 (b. 5 Jun 1341; d. 1 Aug 1402), mar. (1) Isabella of Castile (b. c.1356; d. 23 Nov 1392), 2nd dau. and cohrss. of Peter I, King of Castile, by his wife Maria Garcias de Padilla, dau. of John Garcias de Padilla, and (2) bef. 4 Nov 1393 Lady Joan de Holand (b. c.1380; mar. (2) bef. 9 Aug 1404 William [Willoughby], 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, (3) after 6 Sep 1410 Henry [Scrope], 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, and (4) bef. 27 Apr 1416 Henry [Bromflete], 1st Baron de Vesci; d. 12 Apr 1434), 3rd dau. of Thomas [de Holand], 2nd or 5th Earl of Kent, by his wife Lady Alice FitzAlan, 2nd dau. by his second wife of Richard [FitzAlan], 10th or 3rd Earl of Arundel, and had issue by his first wife:

1a. Edward "of Norwich", 2nd Duke of York, cr. c.1393 Earl of Cork, 25 Feb 1390 Earl of Rutland, and 29 Sep 1397 Duke of Aumale (depr. 3 Nov 1399, rest. 1 May 1414), Knight of the Garter 1387 (b. c.1373; dsp. 25 Oct 1415), mar. c.1397 Philippa Golafre (widow of (1) Walter [FitzWalter], 4th Baron FitzWalter, and (2) Sir John Golafre, of Langley, co. Oxford; d. 17 Jul 1431), dau. of John [de Mohun], 2nd Baron Mohun, by his wife Joan de Burghersh, 2nd dau. of Bartholomew [de Burghersh], 1st Baron Burghersh

2a. Richard "of Conisburgh", confirmed as 3rd Earl of Cambridge 1 May 1414 (b. c.Sep 1375; d. 5 Aug 1415), mar. (1) c. May 1406 his first cousin twice removed Lady Anne de Mortimer, suo jure Countess of March and Ulster (b. 27 Dec 1390; d. Sep 1411), sister and event. sole hrss. of Edmund [de Mortimer], 5th Earl of March, and 1st dau. of Roger [de Mortimer], 4th Earl of March (by his wife Lady Eleanor Holland, 1st dau. of Thomas [Holland], 2nd Earl of Kent), 1st son and heir of Edmund [de Mortimer], 3rd Earl of March, by his wife Lady Philippa Plantagenet, suo jure Countess of Ulster, only child of Lionel "of Antwerp", 1st Duke of Clarence, and mar. (2) c. 1412 Maud de Clifford (former wife of John [Nevil], 6th Baron Latimer; dsp. 26 Aug 1446), only dau. of Thomas [de Clifford], 6th Baron Clifford, by his wife Elizabeth de Ros, 1st dau. of Thomas [de Ros], 4th Baron Ros,, and had issue by his first wife:

1b. Richard [Plantagenet], 3rd Duke of York, Knight of the Garter 1433 (b. 21 Sep 1411; d. 30 Dec 1460), mar. bef. 18 Oct 1424 Lady Cecilia Nevill (b. 3 May 1415; d. 31 May 1495), 5th dau. of Ralph [Nevill], 1st Earl of Westmorland, by his second wife Lady Joan Beaufort, legitimated dau. of John "of Gaunt", 1st Duke of Lancaster (by his mistress and later third wife Katherine Swynford, widow of Sir Hugh Swynford, of Kettlethorpe, co. Lincoln, and 2nd dau. and cohrss. of Sir Payn de Roet, Guienne King of Arms), 4th son of King Edward III, and had issue:

1c. Lord Henry Plantagenet (b. 9 Feb 1441; d. young)

2c. Lord Edward Plantagenet, styled Earl of March later 4th Duke of York later King Edward IV

3c. Lord Edmund Plantagenet, cr. 29 Jan 1446 Earl of Rutland (b. 17 May 1443; d. 30 Dec 1460)

4c. Lord William Plantagenet (b. 7 Jul 1447; d. young)

5c. Lord John Plantagenet (b. 7 Jul 1447; d. young)

6c. Lord George Plantagenet, cr. 28 Jun 1461 Duke of Clarence, and 25 Mar 1472 jure uxoris Earl of Salisbury and of Warwick, Knight of the Garter 1461 (b. 21 Oct 1449; d. 18 Feb 1477/8), mar. 11 Jul 1469 Lady Isabella Nevill (b. 5 Sep 1451; d. 22 Dec 1476), 1st dau. and cohrss. of Richard [Nevill], 1st Earl of Warwick and 6th Earl of Salisbury, styled "the Kingmaker", and had issue:

1d. Lord Edward Plantagenet, styled Earl of Warwick (b. 21 Feb 1475; d. 24 Nov 1499)

2d. Lord Richard Plantagenet (b. 6 Oct 1476; dvp. 1 Jan 1477)

1d. Lady Anne Plantagenet (b. 16 Apr 1470; d. young)

2d. Lady Margaret Plantagenet, suo jure Countess of Salisbury (b. 14 Aug 1473; d. 28 May 1541), mar. 22 Sep 1494 Sir Richard Pole KG, Constable of Harlech Castle (d. Nov 1505), 1st son and heir of Sir Geoffrey Pole, of Worrell, co. Chester, and Wythurn, co. Buckingham, by his wife Edith St John, dau. of Sir Oliver St John, of Bletso, co. Bedford, and half-sister of Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, and had issue:

1e. Hon Sir Henry Pole, styled Lord Montagu (b. c. 1492; attainted and executed 9 Jan 1538/9), mar. bef. May 1520 Hon Jane Nevill (d. bef. 26 Oct 1538), 1st dau. of George [Nevill], 2nd and 4th Baron Abergavenny, by his first wife Margaret Fenne, dau. and hrss. of Sir Hugh Fenne, of Soulton Burdeleys, co. Norfolk, and Braintree, co. Essex, Under-Treasurer of England and Treasurer of the Household to King Henry VI, and had issue:

1f. Hon Henry Pole (d. unm. after Sep 1542)

1f. Hon Katherine Pole (d. 23 Sep 1576), mar. 25 Jun 1532 Francis [Hastings], 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, and had issue

2f. Hon Winifred Pole (d. 23 Sep 1576), mar. (1) Sir Thomas Hastings  (dsp.), and (2) Sir Thomas Barrington, of Barrington Hall, co. Essex, and had issue

2e. Sir Geoffrey Pole, of Lordington, co. Sussex (b. c. 1501; d. Nov 1558), mar. bef. 9 Jul 1528 Constance Pakenham, 1st dau. and cohrss. of Sir Edmund Pzakenham, Gentleman Usher to Queen Catherine (of Aragon), and had issue

3e. Sir Arthur Pole, of Broadhurst, co. Sussex (b. c. 1502; dsp. c. 1535), mar. bef. 24 Oct 1522 Jane Pickering (widow of Sir Christopher Pickering; mar. (3) Sir William Barentyne; d. bef. 12 Mar 1562/3), dau. of Sir Roger Lewknor, of Trotton, co. Sussex, by his wife Eleanor Tuchet, dau. of John [Tuchet], 6th Baron Audley

4e. Cardinal Reginald Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury 1556-1558 (b. 12 Mar 1500; d. 17 Nov 1558)

1e. Lady Ursula Pole (d. 12 Aug 1570), mar. 16 Feb 1518/9 Henry [Stafford], 1st Baron Stafford, and had issue

7c. Lord Thomas Plantagenet (b. 1450; d. young)

8c. Lord Richard Plantagenet, later Duke of Gloucester later King Richard III

1c. Lady Joan Plantagenet (b. and d. 1438)

2c. Lady Anne Plantagenet (b. 10 Aug 1439; d. 12 Jan 1476), mar. (1) bef. 30 Jul 1447 (div. 12 Nov 1472) Henry [Holland], 4th Duke of Exeter, and (2) 1473 Sir Thomas St Leger (d. 1483), and had issue by both husbands

3c. Lady Elizabeth Plantagenet (b. 22 Apr 1444; d. bef. 3 May 1504), mar. Aug 1461 as his second wife John [de la Pole], 2nd Duke of Suffolk, and had issue

4c. Lady Margaret Plantagenet (b. 3 May 1446; dsp. 16 Apr 1503), mar. 3 Jul 1468 Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy

5c. Lady Ursula Plantagenet (b. 22 Jul 1455; d. young)

1b. Lady Isabella Plantagenet (b. 1409; d. 2 Oct 1484). mar. (1) c. Feb 1413 (annulled bef. 1426) Sir Thomas Grey, of Heton, co. Northumberland, and (2) bef. 25 Apr 1426 her second cousin Henry [Bourchier], 1st Earl of Essex, and had issue by her second husband

1a. Lady Constance Plantagenet (b. c.1374; d. 28 Nov 1416), mar. bef. 7 Nov 1389 Thomas [le Despencer], 1st Earl of Gloucester, and had issue

6. Thomas (b. c.1347; dvp. 1348)

7. William (b. bef. 24 Jun 1348; dvp. bef. 5 Sep 1348)

8. Thomas "of Woodstock", jure uxoris Earl of Essex, cr. 16 Jul 1377 Earl of Buckingham, and 6 Aug 1385 Duke of Gloucester, Knight of the Garter 1381 (b. 7 Jan 1355; d. 9 Sep 1397), mar. bef. 8 Feb 1376 Lady Eleanor de Bohun, suo jure Countess of Essex (b. c.1366; d. 3 Oct 1399), 1st dau. of Humphrey [de Bohun], 7th Earl of Hereford, 12th Earl of Essex, and 2nd Earl of Northampton, by his wife Lady Joan FitzAlan, 1st dau. by his second wife of Richard [Fitzalan], 10th or 3rd Earl of Arundel, and had issue:

1a. Lord Humphrey Plantagenet, styled Earl of Buckingham (b. c.Apr 1382; d. 2 Sep 1399)

1a. Lady Anne Plantagenet, suo jure Countess of Buckingham, Hereford and Northampton (b. Apr 1383; d. 20 Oct 1438), mar. (1) c.1390 Thomas [de Stafford], 3rd Earl of Stafford; (2) bef. 28 Jun 1398 Edmund [de Stafford], 5th Earl of Stafford, and (3) bef. 20 Nov 1405 Sir William Bourchier, Count of Eu, and had issue by her second and third husbands

2a. Lady Joan Plantagenet (b. 1384; d. 16 Aug 1400)

3a. Lady Isabella Plantagenet, a nun (b. 12 Mar 1386; d. c.Apr 1402)

4a. Lady Philippa Plantagenet (b. c.1389; d. bef. 3 Oct 1399)

1. Isabella (b. 1332; d. Aug 1382), mar. 27 Jul 1365 Enguerrand VIII, Count of Soissons 1367-97 and Earl of Bedford, and had issue

2. Joan (b. Feb 1335; dvp. 2 Sep 1348)

3. Blanche (b. and d. Mar 1342)

4. Mary (b. 10 Oct 1344; dsp. Dec 1361), mar. Aug 1361 as his first wife John V, Duke of Brittany 1364-99

5. Margaret (b. 20 Jul 1346; dsp. soon after 1 Oct 1361; bur. in Abingdon Abbey), mar. 19 May 1359 as his first wife John [de Hastings], 13th or 2nd Earl of Pembroke

died

21 Jun 1377

created

24 Nov 1312 Earl of Chester

2 Sep 1325 Count of Ponthieu and Montreuil

10 Sep 1325 Duke of Aquitaine

suc. by

grandson

note

formerly assumed the title King of France Jan 1340

 

 

King Richard II had a special regard for St Edward the

Confessor, who was King of England between 1042 and 1066.

He bore the arms attributed to the Confessor impaled with the

quarterly coat of France ancient and England.

 

Richard II (1377-1399)

born

6 Jan 1367

mar. (1)

14 Jan 1382 Anne of Bohemia (b. 11 May 1366; d. 7 Jun 1394), dau. of Emperor Charles IV, by his wife Elizabeth of Pomerania, dau. of Bogislav V, Duke of Pomerania

mar. (2)

4 Nov 1396 Isabella of France (b. 9 Nov 1389; mar. (2) 29 Jun 1406 Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans; d. 13 Sep 1409, leaving issue by her second husband), sister of Katherine, wife of King Henry V, and dau. of Charles VI, King of France, by his wife Isabella of Bavaria, dau. of Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt

died

s.p. 17 Feb 1400

created

20 Nov 1376 Earl of Chester, Earl of Cornwall and Prince of Wales

suc. by

cousin

note

Knight of the Garter 1377; deposed 19 Aug 1399 and formally abdicated 29 Sep 1399

 

 

In 1376 King Charles V of France reduced the number of fleur-de-lys in the French arms to three,

 thus producing the arms termed "France modern".  It is not known when the Kings of England

changed their arms, but King Henry IV's second great seal showing France modern had been

dated c. 1406-1408.  This version of the Royal Arms was used until 1603.

 

Henry IV (1399-1413)

born

3 Apr 1367

mar. (1)

bef. 10 Feb 1381 Lady Mary de Bohun, suo jure Countess of Hereford and Northampton (b. c.1369/70; d. 4 Jun 1394), 2nd dau. of Humphrey [de Bohun], 7th Earl of Hereford, 12th Earl of Essex, and 2nd Earl of Northampton, by his wife Lady Joan FitzAlan, 1st dau. by his second wife of Richard [FitzAlan], 10th or 3rd Earl of Arundel

children by first wife

1. Edward (b. and d. Apr 1382)

2. Henry, later Prince of Wales later King Henry V

3. Thomas, cr. 9 Jul 1412 Earl of Aumale and Duke of Clarence, Knight of the Bath 1399, Knight of the Garter c. 1400 (b. 29 Sep 1388; dspl. 22 Mar 1421), mar. aft. 10 Nov 1411 Lady Margaret Beaufort (b. c.1381; widow of John [Beaufort], 1st Marquess of Somerset; d. 30 Dec 1439, leaving issue by her first husband), 2nd dau. of Thomas [de Holand], 2nd or 5th Earl of Kent, by his wife Lady Alice FitzAlan, 2nd dau. by his second wife of Richard [FitzAlan], 10th or 3rd Earl of Arundel

4. John, cr. 16 May 1414 Earl of Kendal and Duke of Bedford and 24 Nov 1414 Earl of Richmond, Knight of the Bath 1399m Knight of the Garter c. 1400 (b. 20 Jun 1389; dspl. 14 Sep 1435), mar. (1) 13 Apr 1423 Anne of Burgundy (b. c.1404; dsps. 14 Nov 1432), dau. of John "the Fearless", Duke of Burgundy, by his wife Margaret of Bavaria, dau. of Albert of Bavaria, Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, and (2) 20 Apr 1433 Jacquetta of St Pol (b. c.1416; mar. (2) Richard [Wydville], 1st Earl Rivers; d. 30 May 1472), dau. of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of St Pol, by his wife Margaret de Baux, dau. of Francis de Baux, Duke of Andria

5. Humphrey, cr. 16 May 1414 Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Gloucester, jure uxoris Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, Knight of the Garter c.1400 (b. 3 Oct 1390; dsps. legit. 23 Feb 1447), mar. (1) Feb 1422/3 (annulled 9 Jul 1428) as her third husband Jacqueline of Bavaria, suo jure Countess of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault (b. 25 Jul 1401; mar. (1) Jul 1406 John of Viennois, Dauphin of France. mar. (2) 10 Mar 1418 John IV, Duke of Brabant, and (4) Jul 1432 Floris van Borselen, Count of Ostrevant; d. 8 Oct 1436), dau. of William IV, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, by his wife Margaret of Burgundy, dau. of Philip "the Hardy", Duke of Burgundy, and (2) c.1428 his former mistress Alianore de Cobham (dsp. c.1450), 3rd dau. of Sir Reynold de Cobham, de jure 3rd Baron Cobham of Sterborough (by his wife Eleanor Colepeper, dau. of Sir Thomas Colepeper, of Rayal, co. Kent), 2nd but 1st surv. son and heir by his second wife of Reynold [de Cobham], 2nd Baron Cobham of Sterborough

1. Blanche (b. 1392; dsps. 22 May 1409), mar. 6 Jul 1402 Louis III Barbatus, Elector Palatine 1410-1436, and had issue

2. Philippa (b. 4 Jun 1394; d. 5 Jan 1430), mar. 26 Oct 1406 Eric VII, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway 1397-1439, and had issue

mar. (2)

3 Apr 1402 Joan of Navarre (b. c.1370; former wife of John de Montfort IV, Duke of Brittany; d. 2 Jul 1427, leaving issue by her first husband), dau. of Charles II, King of Navarre, by his wife Joan of France, dau. of John II, King of France

died

20 Mar 1413

created

22 Dec 1384 jure uxoris Earl of Hereford and Earl of Northampton

29 Sep 1397 v.p. Duke of Hereford

suc. by

son by first wife

note

Knight of the Garter 1377; styled Earl of Derby from 16 Jul 1377; suc. his father 3 Feb 1399 as Earl of Lincoln, Earl of Leicester and Duke of Lancaster; usurped the Throne 30 Sep 1399 on the abdication of Richard II

 

Henry V (1413-1422)

born

9 Aug 1387

mar.

2 Jun 1420 Katherine of France (b. 27 Oct 1401; mar. (2) c.1426 Owen ap Meredith ap Tewdwr (d. 2 Feb 1461); d. 3 Jan 1437), sister of Queen Isabella and dau. of Charles VI, King of France, by his wife Isabella of Bavaria, dau. of Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt

only child

1. Henry, later Prince of Wales later King Henry VI

died

31 Aug 1422

created

15 Oct 1399 Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Wales and Prince of Aquitaine

23 Oct 1399 Duke of Aquitaine

10 Nov 1399 Duke of Lancaster

suc. by

son

note

Knight of the Garter 1399

 

Henry VI (1422-1461 and 1470-1471)

born

6 Dec 1421

mar.

24 May 1444 Margaret of Anjou (b. 23 Mar 1429; d. 25 Aug 1482), dau. of René, Duke of Anjou and King of Naples and Sicily, by his wife Isabella of Lorraine, dau. of Charles I, Duke of Lorraine

only child

1. Edward, cr. 15 Mar 1454 Earl of Chester and Prince of Wales, Knight of the Garter (b. 13 Oct 1453; dsp. 4 May 1471), mar. 13 Dec 1470 Lady Anne Neville (b. 11 Jun 1456; mar. (2) 12 Jul 1472 Richard [Plantagenet], 1st Duke of Gloucester later King Richard III; d. 16 Mar 1485), 2nd dau. of Richard [Neville], 1st Earl of Warwick and 6th Earl of Salisbury, styled "the Kingmaker", by his wife Lady Anne de Beauchamp, suo jure Countess of Warwick, sister and eventual sole hrss. of Henry [de Beauchamp], 1st Duke of Warwick, and only dau. by his second wife of Richard [de Beauchamp], 13th Earl of Warwick

died

27 May 1471

suc. by

distant cousin

note

deposed in favour of Edward [Plantagenet], 4th Duke of York 4 Mar 1461, restored 30 Oct 1470 and deposed again 11 Apr 1471

 

Edward IV (1461-1470 and 1471-1483)

born

28 Apr 1442

mar.

1 May 1464 Lady Elizabeth Grey (b. c.1437; widow of Sir John Grey, of Groby; d. 8 Jun 1492), 1st dau. of Richard [Wydville], 1st Earl Rivers, by his wife Jacquetta of Luxembourg, widow of John [Plantagenet], 1st Duke of Bedford, and dau. of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of St Pol

children

1. Edward, later Prince of Wales later King Edward V

2. Richard, cr. 28 May 1474 Duke of York, 12 Jun 1476 Earl of Nottingham and 7 Feb 1477 Earl of Surrey and Warenne and Duke of Norfolk, Knight of the Garter 1475, Knight of the Bath 1475 (b. 17 Aug 1473; d. c. Jul 1483), mar. 15 Jan 1477/8 Lady Anne Mowbray, suo jure Countess of Norfolk (b. 10 Dec 1472; dsp. betw. 15 Jan 1481 and 10 Nov 1481), only child of John [de Mowbray], 4th Duke of Norfolk, by his wife Lady Elizabeth Talbot, 1st dau. by his second wife of John [Talbot], 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury

3. George, styled Duke of Bedford (b. c. Mar 1477; d. Mar 1479)

1. Elizabeth (b. 11 Feb 1466; d. 11 Feb 1503), mar. 18 Jan 1486 King Henry VII, and had issue

2. Mary (b. 11 Aug 1467; d. 23 May 1482)

3. Cecilia (b. 20 Mar 1469; d. 24 Aug 1507), mar. (1) c. Dec 1487 John [Welles], 1st Viscount Welles, and (2) c. 1503 Thomas Kyme, of Friskney, co. Lincoln, and had issue by both husbands

4. Margaret (b. 10 Apr 1472; d. 11 Dec 1472)

5. Anne (b. 2 Nov 1475; dsps. 23 Nov 1511), mar. 4 Feb 1494/5 as his first wife Thomas [Howard], 3rd Duke of Norfolk

6. Katherine (b. 14 Aug 1479; d. 15 Nov 1527), mar. c. Oct 1495 William [Courtenay], Earl of Devon, and had issue

7. Bridget, a nun at Dartford Priory, co. Kent (b. 10 Nov 1480; d. c. 1513)

died

9 Apr 1483

suc. by

son

note

suc. his father as 4th Duke of York; proclaimed King of England 4 Mar 1461, deposed in favour of King Henry VI 30 October 1470 but restored 11 Apr 1471

 

Edward V (1483)

born

1 Nov 1470

died

c. Jul 1483

created

25 Jun 1471 Earl of Chester and Prince of Wales

17 Jul 1471 Duke of Cornwall

8 Jul 1479 Earl of March and Earl of Pembroke

suc. by

uncle

note

Knight of the Garter 1475; deposed by his uncle Richard [Plantagenet], Duke of Gloucester 26 Jun 1483

 

Richard III (1483-1485)

born

2 Oct 1452

mar.

12 Jul 1472 Lady Anne Neville (b. 11 Jun 1456; widow of Edward, Prince of Wales; d. 16 Mar 1485), 2nd dau. of Richard [Neville], 1st Earl of Warwick and 6th Earl of Salisbury, styled "the Kingmaker", by his wife Lady Anne de Beauchamp, suo jure Countess of Warwick, sister and eventual sole hrss. of Henry [de Beauchamp], 1st Duke of Warwick, and only dau. by his second wife of Richard [de Beauchamp], 13th Earl of Warwick

only child

1. Edward "of Middleham", cr. 15 Feb 1478 Earl of Salisbury and 24 Aug 1483 Earl of Chester and Prince of Wales (b. c. Dec 1473; dvp. 9 Apr 1484)

died

22 Aug 1485 (bur. c. 24 Aug 148/5 in Greyfriars Priory, Leicester; re-buried 26 Mar 2015 in Leicester Cathedral)

created

1 Nov 1461 Duke of Gloucester

suc. by

distant cousin

note

Knight of the Garter c.1466; acceded to the Throne of England 26 Jun 1483 on the deposition of his nephew, King Edward V

 

Last updated 19 Nov 2012

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